Guard Dog Blog

on Livestock Guardian Dogs and small farm life…


Rules to live by.

As I’m wrapping up my life on this farm, I find myself thinking about the hard and fast rules that I wish current and prospective owners knew about working LGDs.  Here is a compilation of some of them for easy reference.




Do not buy a pup who has not been handled or socialized.  This stupid trend NEEDS to end and the only way that will happen is if buyers stop supporting it.

Do not wait to address inappropriate behavior.  Teach your pup or dog the expected rules (ie. manners) from the get go.  More problems occur because owners slough off the responsibility to teach their pups and then wonder why the now-large LGD is behaving badly and not listening.

Don’t post: “ISO perfect young LGD who will never make a mistake, or challenge a fence.”  Where do you think LGDs come from, a robot factory?  If you have no time to put in and expect perfection right out of the gate, abandon the idea of a LGD.  I’ll happily slap you myself if you don’t.

Don’t expect more of your dog than they can handle for their age or experience.  A small pup is not the physical or mental equivalent of a mature LGD.  No one with half a brain thinks that a young herding pup could move sheep all day or a pup raised for detection work could sniff for bombs all day long – no, working dogs are given time to mature and learn the ropes before being thrown in the deep end.  Get a grip and stop being an idiot.

Socialize all pups.  Don’t look for excuses not to and don’t think up reasons why you can’t.  DO IT.  If anyone says otherwise, run -don’t walk – away.  They’re just playing “expert”.  Ain’t no one got time for that. (See the previous post for a more elaborate explanation on “experts”.)

If it comes down to practicality or taking the long way around when it comes to training techniques, choose practicality.  LGDs are working dogs.  They understand clear, honest communication as long as your overarching priority is to retain and build relationship.

Do not rescue a dog that you are not equipped to handle, no matter how much other people pressure you to or how badly you want to “save a life”.  Only do it if you are certain you can handle the consequences if everything goes sideways.  You could well end up on the business end of a set of sharp teeth or picking up dead stock in your pasture.  When in doubt, leave the rehabbing to the experts.

Don’t limp a broken dog along.  Dogs are mentally broken for different reasons, but it always comes down to either nature or nurture – genetics or care.  The fact of the matter is that unlike many other dogs, LGDs grow into a certain hardness that is difficult, if not impossible, to change.  They are meant to be this way so that once taught well, they are able to stick to their guns no matter what goes on around them.  Unfortunately, this also means that a dog who is treated badly early on may well never get past it.  It also means that while a pup is fairly malleable (especially when very young), this window closes quite rapidly and often isn’t long enough to make up for genetic deficiencies.

Start giving a crap about health.  The LGDs we have here are often so inbred or overbred that health problems are wide sweeping and endemic.  If a breeder wants to give you a laundry list of things you cannot do with their dogs or has dogs who are impaired or consistently passing away early, don’t buy from them.  A good lifespan for a working LGD should be well past year 10, especially if they are not under a lot of strain from predators.  Dogs should not be falling apart in the pasture before then.

There is never any substitution for a well bred, stable, dog.  EVER.  If you choose to limp a dog through their inherent problems, don’t breed them.  If the problem is not genetic in origin, remember that even issues that arise due to environment or handling can and will impact future generations.  Seek a qualified independent assessment of your dog or try to match them with a mate who is strong in their weak areas.  This way, at least some of the litter should be better equipped to deal with life.

A dog who is mean to your children or young stock is not a good LGD.  Period. No more needs to be said on the subject.

Stick your tongue out at anyone who tells you that LGDs are mystical creatures who lived with unicorns back in the cradle of civilization and eat lions for lunch.  LGDs are pretty special, but they are first and foremost dogs and need to be treated as such.  They make mistakes, they need training, and they need a capable human to lean on from time to time.

LGD/non-LGD crosses DO NOT MAKE GOOD LGD PROSPECTS.  Stop testing this, stop thinking you know better or can be a part of a new wave of exciting non-traditional LGDs.  You’re being a moron like many morons before you.  If it was possible to consistently produce good LGDs from such pairings, they’d be everywhere by now.

Get off the large LGD forums.  There are so many voices on there that are just loud, not necessarily informed or experienced.  You’re going to do much better by doing some independent reading, stalking of smaller groups, following common sense and listening to your gut if you have one.  You’re going to do much better by digesting different portions of information that make a lot of sense than by trying to do random things people tell you to do online.  Stop outsourcing your research and your thinking.  In this day and age, there is no excuse for being naive about any new venture.

Finally, YOU alone are ultimately responsible for your choice to employ LGDs.  You are responsible for everything your dogs do.  Take it seriously and don’t be a part of the reason why the use of LGDs is restricted in the future.  Protect your dog and protect your community equally.





The Big Question: What is a LGD?

In my work with LGDs (Livestock Guardian Dogs), I ran into this question more than any other.  It takes many different forms, but essentially what everyone wants to know is what a LGD is, what a LGD does, and conversely, what falls outside the parameters of the definition.  This is not only the most common topic of conversation, but also the one that many educators struggle to adequately define.

I’ll start by saying that I am very aware that my worldview is that of someone who has lived their whole life in western society.   I have, however, worked very hard to counteract this by exploring the cultures that still keep LGDs predominately as their ancestors did.  Cultures with deep and ongoing pastoral roots show a clearer picture of the Livestock Guardian Dog than those who have largely moved to closed registry systems with a heavy emphasis on conformation shows.  As these dogs traditionally were true landraces; the people who still promote assortative mating and strict culling practices hold the ancient wisdom of selection and training that made these dogs so solidly valuable as guardians.  These are the people who understand that a working dog is a partner, not simply a tool.

This is what I have learned, borne out by LGD champions here in North America and my own personal experience.

1. A LGD is a large, hearty dog.

LGDs were developed to protect domestic prey animals from wild predators.  This is the heart and soul of who they are.  They cannot protect if they are too small to pose a threat to predators.  They cannot follow through on their threats nor provide an comforting presence to their charges if they are anything but strong and stoic in the face of uncertainty.

2. A LGD is both nurturing and protective.

LGDs are equal parts submissive and dominant, affectionate and aggressive.  They care for their charges with a mother’s love: devoted, gentle and protective.  They defend their charges with a mother’s fervor: decisive, committed and with passion. It is not uncommon to observe a dog expose his belly to an inquisitive lamb and then in the next breath, leap to defend it against a threat.  Once trained and mature, LGDs are able to instinctively discern who is friend and who is foe and respond accordingly.

3. A LGD is thoughtfully aggressive.

Although aggressive and tenacious, LGDs never operate indiscriminately or without inhibition.  Affectionately nicknamed “thoughtful fighters”, LGDs are consistently in control of their emotions and use only as much force as necessary to prove their point.  This does not mean that they will not eliminate predators when necessary, but many LGDs will try to communicate their intent to protect for some time before going on the offensive.  LGDs instinctively view weakness as something to protect, never to harm.

4. A LGD thinks for himself.

  An emphasis on rote obedience, highly prized in the western world, was not part of the selection process for LGDs. As with most working dogs, an ability to think independently is part and parcel of their core definition.  This means that while you won’t find too many members who excel in obedience competitions, they are routinely superior at fulfilling their mission to nurture and protect.  Several senses are heightened in dogs when compared to humans; this must be taken into consideration and respected, especially upon maturity.  Many times, humans have been unable to identify the threat until much later, but their LGD(s) recognized it immediately.

5. A LGD listens to his shepherd.

At first glance, this point seems in direct opposition to the one above.  An independent dog is not at all the same as one who cannot be controlled or who doesn’t defer to any human, however.  A partnership wherein the LGD defers to his owner is earned through building trust and consistently fair handling.  A shepherd has no fear of managing and correcting his LGDs and expects to have the final say on all important matters.  A stable LGD who sees his owner as a partner has no problem listening to him.  In order to establish and maintain this partnership, the shepherd must know when to interfere (for example intrapack/interpack aggression ) and when not to.

6. A LGD is a dog.

Tales of the supernatural, mythical abilities of LGDs are fun to recount and fascinating to listen to, but they serve very little practical purpose in the real world.  While there is usually more than a grain of truth to these stories, it is vital to remember that LGDs are first and foremost dogs with a dog’s instincts and a dog’s view of life.  LGDs have been artificially selected over centuries to have a reduced prey drive and high amount of self control but that does not mean that they are not still dogs.  Care needs to be taken to manage and train LGDs so that they become successful guardians.  As in all working dog types, there are outliers who are unable to fulfill the job description.

7.  A LGD is a social dog.

LGDs develop strong bonds with other LGDs.  They employ a complex and nuanced social language with each other that relies heavily on body language and cooperation.  As with most canines, individual friendship preferences matter, and gender may matter to some.  Almost universally, however,  LGDs prefer to live in partnerships or groups.

8. A LGD can be a “hard” or “soft” dog or somewhere in between.

The disposition of a LGD depends on many factors including genetics, early nurturing or lack thereof, health, stage of life, weather and how settled they are in their environment.  Much of the determining factor in whether an LGD will be “hard” (tough, stoic, resilient) or “soft” (unable to defend against larger apex predators) has to do with their genetics, although the other factors deserve equal consideration.  Assessing the individual dog is typically more important than applying broad breed expectations.  It is also vital to recognize that a dog who has recently moved to a new home will behave differently than after they settle in.  A LGD encountered off of their ‘home turf’ will also behave differently than when approached on their own territory.

9. A LGD bonds deeply.

Whether it is to another dog, their stock, their territory, their human(s) or all of the above, LGDs bond intensely and without reservation.   The loss of what or who they are bonded to leaves a LGD with uncertainty and confusion.  Many times, I have seen LGDs whose owners believe them to be defective recover and go on to be incredible working dogs when provided with an appropriate bond.  Much of working LGD rehab can be summed up in two words: providing direction.  It is impossible to compensate for a lack of instinct, however, most dogs with working genetics simply need their instinct channelled appropriately.

10. A LGD is the best friend a shepherd can have.

Shepherds the world over sleep soundly at night, safe in the knowledge that their dogs are working hard to protect their livestock.  For many shepherds, their livestock remains their livelihood and subsequently only entrusted to LGDs due to their effectiveness.  There is no other guardian who is so equally affectionate and protective, nor one who is so incredibly adaptable.  The love and dedication of a LGD is unparalleled.  It is a lucky person whom a LGD considers family and a lucky flock with LGDs to defend them.  Even more, it is a fortunate LGD whose owner cares for and understands them.  12794589_10153959428925987_8528213169421724126_n




Leave a comment

The Armenian Gampr

A few weeks ago, a friend by the name of Rohana Mayer took a trip to Armenia to gather DNA samples of the working LGDs native to there, also known as gamprs.  Rohana is the head of the Armenian Gampr Club of America, an organization dedicated to the preservation of the Armenian Gampr landrace.  We were in contact through some of her trip,  and I greatly enjoyed the updates she provided on the Armenian Gampr group on Facebook.  Rohana has graciously agreed to allow me to post some of the pictures she took as well as to sit for an interview, which I will post soon.

First, some context.

Armenia is a small (approximately 30,000 square km, or roughly the size of Maryland in the US) landlocked country in Southwestern Asia, between Turkey and Azerbaijan to the west and east respectively and Georgia and Iran to the north and south.



Like other small countries in Europe, Armenia has struggled with retaining its autonomy over the centuries.  External control and the effort of resisting that control left Armenia in never ending turmoil and culminated in a genocide of at least 1 million citizens between 1915 and 1922 by neighboring Turkey during the tail end of Ottoman rule.   Between political unrest and set backs from natural disasters like the earthquake in 1988 that killed 25,000 and left hundreds of thousands more homeless, Armenia naturally became a nation of extreme resilience and creativity.  Now independent, Armenians battle against internal corruption and a difficult economy that has left them with a high rate of poverty.  Despite this, Armenia continues its’ long history of reinvention, ever striving to thrive out from under the shadow of the much larger and more influential countries nearby.

Nearly 60% of Armenia’s land base is devoted to agriculture, divided as 15.8% arable land, 1.9% permanent crops and 42% permanent pasture.  The largest section of the Armenian labor force,  at 39%,  is in agriculture.  This high level of permanent pasture land and weighted importance of agriculture in the economy translates into a very long history of pastoralism for Armenians.  Forests make up a further 9% of the land, adding to the available area for grazing livestock.  Transhumance, the ancient method of moving stock from low lands to higher pastures seasonally, is still practiced there today.  Whether in more contained systems closer to urban centers, or found in more remote areas of this beautiful country, Armenian shepherds have long relied on the gampr dog to protect them and their livelihood.

Armenian shepherd and resting gampr. Photo credit: Rohana Mayer

Armenian shepherd and resting gampr. Photo credit: Rohana Mayer

The Armenian Gampr, like many dogs used for personal and livestock guardian work in different countries, are required to be defensively confrontational with intruders and predators while remaining soft and affectionate with their family.  They must be large enough to be imposing and tough enough to follow through on their threats if need be, but not so big as to impede athleticism or be unthrifty.  Being a true landrace even in modern times means that the gampr is an extremely rich well of genetic diversity.  Furthermore, it means that the phenotypic expression of this diversity resists the development of a show-type or Kennel Club standard.  There are still parameters to judge by, however, and some of the macro points are as follows (from the AGCA website):

“The breed evolved for a rigorous lifestyle requiring independent intelligence, strong survival instincts, reliable livestock guardianship, and a dependable, efficient physique.”

Gamprs have been bred for function more than appearance.  Any color is permissible, except merle, liver or blue, and blue eyes or eyes lacking dark eyeliner, and pink noses.”


“The thick coat of the gampr is excellent protection in all weather extremes.  Typically, longer-haired dogs were from the snowy highlands, and shorter-haired dogs were from the lowlands. The outer hairs tend to be darker than the dense, downy undercoat. They shed their coat once or twice a year, in great amounts. Puppies often are born slightly darker than they grow to be as an adult.

Gamprs have strong, muscular bodies with large bone structure. It is often surprising how large their heads are when compared other modern ‘pet’ dogs.”

An adult male gampr in Armenia. Photo credit: Rohana Mayer

An adult male gampr in Armenia. Photo credit: Rohana Mayer


Two Armenian Gampr pups share the proceeds of a recent lamb slaughter by their shepherd. Photo credit: Rohana Mayer 2015

Two Armenian Gampr pups share the proceeds of a lamb slaughtered by their shepherd. Photo credit: Rohana Mayer 2015

As the Armenian people have struggled for so long, so too have their beloved dogs.  At various points in its’ history, the Armenian Gampr has been used to bolster non-working breeds outside their borders, as a part of fighting dog breeding, exported at high rates along with livestock, taken as the spoils of war, lost to inappropriate external expectations and wounded by inappropriate breeding practices both within and outside of the country’s bounds.   True gamprs, those who structurally and temperamentally qualify as guardians, are worth a great deal to breeders and buyers alike.

This sets the backdrop for Rohana Mayer’s recent trip to western Armenia.  Armed with buccal swabs and aided by a team of dedicated indigenous shepherds and breeders, she traveled through a third of the unpretentious country looking for examples of the gampr for DNA testing.  Some dogs had inappropriate temperaments or were overly mixed, and still others showed the ravages of long term inbreeding (done in a misapplied effort to ensure purity).  Perseverance of a high standard of behavior and morphology paid off, though, and Rohana managed to find some beautiful examples of working gamprs.  I’ll leave you with some pictures of these dogs, as well as some links for further reading about the Armenian Gampr.  Look for my interview with Rohana in an upcoming post.  If you have any interest in aiding Rohana and the Armenian Gampr  Club of America’s preservation project, please contact Rohana at or me through this site.


*****More reading:

Timeline of the last century in Armenia:

“A Brief History of the Armenian Gampr” (AGCA):

Overview of the history of the Armenian Gampr, with a slant towards registering a standard:

Leave a comment

Shake those hips – the foundation of a strong dog. Part II

If you’ve spent any time on my FB groups or have spoken to me about dog breeding, you’ll know that I’m not a big fan of closed registry breeding and conversely, I really like some forms of health testing.  Screening for hip dysplasia is one of those health tests I will always do – in fact, it’s smack dab at the top of my list.  This is despite the fact that clear screens on both parents is not a guarantee that the pups won’t end up someday with HD.  There are plenty of breeders who feel that it is unnecessary to screen their dogs, claiming both that they’d implicitly know if their LGDs had the condition and that the lack of guarantee for a HD free outcome for the pups makes it not worth the expense of testing.  While the former is highly debatable, given the stoicism and work ethic of the dogs in question and the fact that HD is a spectrum disorder that worsens with age, the latter is simply – in my opinion – a cop out.  There are plenty of things in life that we don’t have complete control over, but that doesn’t negate the need to stack the deck in our favor, especially when we are bringing animals into this world.  Canine hip dysplasia is so rampant in large dogs that if we claim to care about them, we cannot continue to afford to do otherwise.

As well as screening potential parents through OFA or PennHIP, what else can we do to reduce the chances that our dogs will develop HD?  The answer, like the condition, is multifaceted.

The first line of defense of course is to screen the parents, not only individually, but also familially.  The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals provides us with some guidelines to go by (information in brackets, mine):

  • Breed normals to normals {normal meaning those that pass screening}
  • Breed normals with normal ancestry
  • Breed normals from litters (brothers/sisters) with a low incidence of HD
  • Select a sire that produces a low incidence of HD
  • Replace dogs with dogs that are better than the breed average

Clearly, in order to follow these guidelines, breeders need to have access to and keep ongoing accurate records regarding not only their own dogs, but also about their families and entire litters that they’ve produced.  This type of record keeping, typically only reserved for dogs eligible to be registered with certain organizations such as the AKC and UKC, would have to become commonplace for the working LGD.

The Baker Institute for Animal Health at Cornell University has this to say about the rates of HD in the litters of both affected and unaffected parentage.

“The knowledge that hip dysplasia has a genetic basis allows us to make decisions about breeding. Dogs that are known to be dysplastic should not be bred. The mating of two affected dogs produces an incidence of 75 percent in offspring – in other words, 3 out of 4 puppies produced by two dysplastic dogs will themselves develop hip dysplasia. In contrast, on average only 25 percent of offspring of a mating between two healthy dogs will develop hip dysplasia. There is clearly an advantage to a mating between normal dogs. By limiting the breeding population to only those dogs with healthy hips, we can lower the number of new cases of hip dysplasia that will appear in the coming generations.”

While an incidence of 25% may not be ideal, it is much better than the 75% produced by dysplastic parents, and may be able to be further reduced through management of the offspring (see below).  It is also no more than can be expected and is accepted from imported landrace LGDs or those from otherwise untested ancestry overseas.

Anatolian litter at Cheetah Outreach.

Anatolian litter at Cheetah Outreach.

After the litter is on the ground there is still a lot that can be done to try to avoid the development of HD in the individual pup.  The USDAA, a canine agility organization, has a great article outlining one of the most recent studies related to the prevention of HD.  Here are some of the highlights, however, it is highly recommended to read the full article and follow up with the links listed for a more complete picture.

  • the period from birth to three months is the most influential time for decreasing the manifestation of HD
  • litters born in the spring and summer, and those on a farm had a lower incidence of HD
  • low impact, self driven (not forced) exercise is beneficial
  • avoid jumping and daily use of stairs
  • avoid running for periods of time
  • “daily exercise outdoors in gently undulating terrain up to the age of three months is very helpful”

This study did not find a connection between growth rate and the incidence of HD despite the fact that previous studies have.  Such studies were undertaken at Cornell, where one 14 yr long study showed that feeding less and controlling the growth rate resulted in a significant decrease in the manifestation of HD, as well as increasing longevity and lowering the risk of developing osteoarthritis.  The findings are certainly significant enough to warrant the elimination of free feeding regimes, especially for dogs who do not limit intake on their own.

How else can we control diet during growth to reduce the incidence of hip dysplasia?  Susan Wynn, DVM, says that we ought to consider not only the type of food that we are feeding large pups, but also the level of protein, calcium and fat in the food.  In “Feeding Large Breed Puppies”, published by the Integrative Veterinary Care Journal, she states:

“The most important factors in preventing developmental orthopedic disease (DOD) are rate of growth (which is proportional to the caloric intake) and dietary calcium level.

A common misconception found in many internet articles is the claim that dietary protein should be controlled in large breed puppies to prevent skeletal abnormalities. This theory was disproved some years ago (Nap, 1991). Most commercial puppy foods contain more protein than is thought necessary, but studies have shown that protein contents of 23% to 31% (dry matter) do not have a deleterious effect on growth. The effects of high dietary protein contents in the range of those found in raw diets have not been investigated, to this author’s knowledge.

An overweight body condition is an important risk factor for DOD, and feeding for maximum growth increases that risk. Commercial puppy and adult foods containing 10% to 25% fat (dry matter) are considered adequate for growth. Raw diets tend to range from 20% to 40% fat (dry matter) so it is particularly important to slow growth by maintaining a very lean body condition when these diets are fed. It has been shown that body fat is higher in puppies fed very high fat, low carbohydrate diets during growth.”

In other words, not only is the rate of intake by the individual pup important, it is equally important to consider what is in the food they are fed, and to keep them lean through to maturity and beyond.  Below is the generally referenced chart for assessing canine body condition.  It is important to note that an accurate rating cannot be given unless the assessor physically feels the dog with both hands.

Purina's Canine Obesity Scale (BCS)

Purina’s Canine Obesity Scale (BCS)


There is currently no cure for canine hip dysplasia, and no DNA screening available to pinpoint affected LGD dogs or carriers of the defective genes that lead to it.  Any therapies or surgical interventions involve great expense, pain, and heartache which is why this is truly a situation where prevention is paramount.   If we don’t do all that we can to give our dogs a solid skeletal foundation from which to operate, we cannot be said to be setting them up for success as LGDs.  Considering the labor and expense that goes into raising an effective Livestock Guardian Dog, it only makes sense to ensure that they are not predisposed to developing such a debilitating condition as hip dysplasia.

I recently bred my main LGD, Ivy, and had both her hips and elbows tested and evaluated by the OFFA.  If you go to the OFA database and look up Maremma, Ivy – you’ll see her results: Good.  I paid for testing of the sire’s hips as well; Gibbs, Great Pyrenees, results: Good.  While this does not give us familial information and does not ensure that no pups from the litter will develop HD, it does put us ahead of the game – preventing any undue stress on Ivy during the pregnancy and subsequent whelping, and reducing the risk of HD for the pups.  It also gives us information to build on in the future, to build the familial information necessary to reduce HD in future generations.  Hip dysplasia is not a kennel club problem alone, and those of us who breed mainly outside the system need to recognize our part in the perpetuation of it.


References in addition to in text links:

Baker Institute:

Effects of limited food consumption on the incidence of hip dysplasia in dogs (Kealy et. al, 1992):

Leave a comment

Life stages, expectations, and the most precious time in an LGD’s life.

Just like their human counterparts, dogs go through life stages.  Their progression through these stages is more accelerated than humans’, however.  Misunderstanding the nature of their life stages or refusing to acknowledge these stages whatsoever is a root cause of a high number of Livestock Guardian Dog failures.  Unfortunately, we don’t have solid numbers on just how many fail due to this, given that many owners and producers deal with “failed” dogs by euthanizing them or passing them on to shelters or companion homes.

It’s true that no producer can afford to house and feed dogs who cannot fulfill their intended role.  However, contrary to some common folk wisdom, LGDs are not born knowing how to become mature, reliable guardians without any training whatsoever.  Unfortunately, the same people who understand that a herding dog needs to mature and have training before being adept at his role don’t always recognize that LGDs have similar needs.

In their countries of origin, much of this training was done traditionally by older LGDs, often multiple ones and often of a familial group.  Enforcement and refuge were provided by the shepherds.  Supervision was not an issue, as pups were either with the shepherd or under the view of the more experienced dogs, who didn’t hesitate to correct as they saw fit and daily set an example of desired behavior.  In some countries, this is still the case.  Pups are raised under influence from more experienced working dogs and humans.  They are selected to be quick visual learners, able to understand the parameters of their role by watching the older dogs and the shepherds.  They are also selected to be tough, yet sensitive – able to handle rough terrain, weather and life while still offering and receiving care well.


Bakharwal with shepherd and flock.

Learning on the job is a time honored tradition that has been difficult to replicate in North America and other parts of the world where the majority of stock are kept in one area all their lives and the shepherd visits infrequently.  Without human oversight and often lacking crucial input from more experienced dogs, the LGDs in these areas are often put under selection pressure that may make them more apt to make it to maturity without making serious mistakes but also may make for a dog who is less likely to think for themselves and to be effective in conflicts with predators.  With the more recent return of large predators to many parts of the world, it is more important than ever to ensure a peaceful coexistence between them and our stock.  It’s time again to become “hands on” shepherds and to help guide our LGDs through the stages of their lives.

Dogs essentially go through 4 life stages.  Puppyhood runs from birth to approximately 6 months of age, adolescence from 6 to 18/24 months (sometimes beyond), and adulthood from 2-3 years of age and up.  When a dog moves from being an adult into his senior years is dependent greatly on his health and size.  Large dogs, in general, mature more slowly than smaller dogs and live a shorter life span.  Where a small dog may be considered a senior at 13 or 14 years, a large dog can be the equivalent at 6 or 8.

Let’s take a look at the stages individually.

Bolt, a Kuvasz/Great Pyrenees as a young pup

Bolt, a Kuvasz/Great Pyrenees as a young pup

Puppyhood is easily recognizable by most people.  From the time a pup is born, they are learning and growing at a rapid pace, moving from a tiny slick, squiggly and blind creature with no teeth to a fully functioning animal who is most concerned with exploration.  By the time pups are weaned and leave their mothers, most of their frank openness to the world is over, leaving them to balance fear and curiosity for the rest of their lives.   Thankfully, apart from some brief periods known as “fear periods” (read more about them here), this balance is typically weighted in favor of curiosity through puppyhood and much of adolescence.

Puppyhood is the stage we are most enamoured with as humans; puppy breath and puppy cuddles are some of the sweetest things we can think of.  Nature designed the babies of a species to have this endearing quality, encouraging the adults to care for them and excuse some of their obnoxious behaviors.  This is the time when dogs have what we call a “puppy pass”, wherein the adults give them leeway to be silly and eschew the rules, when corrections are minor – laced with care and reserved for the most serious of infractions.

Babies of all kinds of species have a deep seated need to play, and puppies are no exception.  Some people unfortunately feel that LGD pups shouldn’t be allowed to play past weaning; however, that view is short sighted.  Play is an efficient way for pups to learn the rules of social behavior in context as well as about their environment and how to behave within it.  Play teaches them to utilize and increase inhibition, a crucial part of LGD work.  Play allows them to practice the motor patterns that will one day allow them to be successful in warding off and eliminating predators.  Play also releases endorphins in the brain, keeping puppies buoyant and happy in a difficult and strange world.

Puppies are the babies of the dog world; before long they are free falling into adolescence.  It’s the best time to teach LGDs basic obedience, manners and to socialize them well.  While puppyhood remains one of the most precious and important stages of a dog’s life, it is also the shortest stage of their lives.

Adolescent working Mioritics in Romania

Adolescent working Mioritics in Romania

Adolescence is the equivalent to the pre teen and teenage stages in human children.  The onset and length of this period is variable, both between breeds/types, but also individually.  Some dogs simply mature faster than others.  Some take more work to encourage on to the path of maturity, preferring to hang on to the fun and freedom of puppyhood.  One sure indication that a LGD has moved past the puppy stage and into adolescence is the revocation of his “puppy pass”.  His once tolerant older companions no longer turn a blind eye to his behavior.  Some owners over react to this development, certain that something is wrong with the older dogs or that their cherished pup is no longer safe in his environment –  but nothing could be further from the truth.  Much like the increased expectations in the classroom for older students, puppies benefit from learning that their place in this world.  The role they are intended to fulfill requires a heightened level of maturity, something that takes time and practice to master.

This is also the time when the expectations of the owner or producer often run right up against the abilities of the dog.  Early on, adolescence can be readily identifiable, with gangly bodies and goofy behavior, but as it progresses and the dogs look more and more like adults, it can be difficult for an owner or producer to accept that they will still make mistakes.  Even early on, the once mild mannered pup who suddenly grows an attitude and wants to rough house with stock can be difficult to understand.  It seems like over night, what was simply a silly puppy has become a large, out of control dog driven by his hormones.  He can push the boundaries and try some things on for size, like resource guarding.   It looks sometimes like he’s forgotten everything he was taught as a pup and as though he doesn’t care much how his humans feel about that.   Alternately, if he wasn’t well socialized, he can be difficult to catch and discipline or impossible to keep contained.  Frustration and confusion abound on both sides.

This is far and away the most common stage when dogs are either euthanized, given up, or the owner otherwise looks for help.  Unfortunately, if the stage wasn’t set in puppyhood, it can be difficult to teach all the desired behaviors during adolescence.   Maintaining previously taught behaviors while increasing expectations is the name of the game for this period –  encouraging maturity and self control while expecting periodic regressions in behavior.  An owner or producer can never have enough patience or tools in their tool box to keep an adolescent dog between the lines until more maturity kicks in. This is, however, not the time to put the dog away and forget about him, as it is vital that he stays in the job, keeps learning what is expected and continues to be exposed to different aspects of working life.

This is also the period when the picture of the true dog emerges.  Much like the butterfly developing in the chrysalis, adolescence is a time to wait, watch and hold steady.  The adult dog is there, the owner just can’t see him clearly yet.

NOTE: Some concerning behaviors during adolescence shouldn’t be dismissed or otherwise ignored.  A sudden onset of aggression/threat towards those he is meant to care for, or towards his owners is one such behavior.  Sound sensitivity, often seen in the form of thunder phobia is another.  Chasing and gripping stock, guarding the stock’s resources from them or fence breaching should never, ever be ignored, regardless of life stage.

Ceaser, adult Great Pyrenees, watches over chickens.

Ceaser, adult Great Pyrenees, watches over chickens.

Adulthood is the time when all the hard work by dog and human pay off.  This is the stage where the LGD is fully dependable with stock of all sizes and abilities, where the partnership between he and his owner hits its stride and where the more fully informed choice can be made to pass on his genes to the next generation.  This is the time where growth finishes; the dog is fully in control of his faculties and is truly able and expected to show a maximum level of appropriate decision making and self control.  He starts on the path to becoming the mentor he once needed.

This is the stage where working behaviors are proofed and a dog is able to gain valuable life experiences. He becomes trustworthy enough to attend births unsupervised.  All of his deduction, self control and differentiation skills become the strongest they will ever be in his life.  He no longer over or under reacts, but instead operates from a place of self-assuredness.   While it still remains important to keep him under control in stressful situations with new people and strange canids, his judgement can be trusted for the vast majority of things.

To me, adulthood is the real precious time of a dog’s life.  It’s a stage when the trust in the relationship shifts to a more equal plane and it is no longer necessary to maximize the learning process.  It’s a beautiful time of enjoyment and relaxation on both sides.  A well rounded, well trained LGD with good working instincts is worth their weight in gold for any farming/ranching operation.

It is also a time when it’s important for the owner or producer to continue to check in with the working LGD, to ensure that his behavior remains steady, that he is being fed enough, that he continues in good physical and mental shape.  Ongoing full time work keeping predators at bay and caring for his charges can take a toll on the best of working dogs.


Senior dogs enter into the last life stage far too quickly for our comfort.  It seems as though we’ve just gotten used to their adulthood, just begun taking it for granted that they’ll always be there, when they begin displaying the effects of old age.

As I previously mentioned, the age at which a dog will enter this life phase depends on several factors, including size and health.  Transitioning from adulthood into old age can be a slow or sudden.  Whether it’s watching him have difficulty rising in the morning or cleaning a wound he never would have gotten a few years ago, it is can be very difficult to adjust to the new reality.

Some dogs are able to ease into retirement and others are under attack from younger dogs once they show any weakness.  Some dogs go strong up until the end, and others slide into dementia,  suffer from debilitating illnesses that require surgeries and treatments or render them largely immobile.

Old age is, just like for humans, an individual journey that is full of familiar comfort pricked with the pangs of heartbreak.  It’s a time when the wisdom and confidence created through a lifetime of experiences creates the best mentorship for those who are up and coming guardians.  Ideally, it’s a stage when LGDs who want to continue living with stock can keep doing so, supported and with a few more comforts provided.   For other LGDs, it’s a time when they retire to the comforts of the house or yard and are rewarded for a lifetime of service.

Either way, the senior years are in some respects a celebration of the fact that they lived, loved and went to battle every day for many years, as they were intended to from the start.  Whatever stage your working dogs are in now, one thing is for certain: their lives will pass too quickly yet impact us greatly.








LGD communication.

While we are talking about canine communication, it would be a good time to go over some of what we’re looking for in terms of body language in the Livestock Guardian Dog.

As we’ve talked about before, LGDs are one of the only types of dogs developed to live with prey animals, namely livestock.  Livestock generally live in groups and are very sensitive to threatening behavior.  They respond to bodies (people and animals) that are carried with a lot of forward motion or threatening intent by running away or less commonly and/or if trapped, by threatening them back.  This is, of course, a survival mechanism common to all kinds of prey species, domestic or otherwise.  LGDs have to fit a dual job description in terms of body language requirements.  They must be threatening enough to would-be predators to drive them off (at the least) and they have to display body language that makes the livestock feel safe and secure enough to stay close to them.

As a part of fulfilling the job of driving predators away from their charges, LGDs are bred to be large or extra large in size, with deep, booming voices.  This signals to predators that they can not only be a match for any predator contemplating a meal of lamb or veal, but also that they are constantly on alert and won’t miss any such attempt.  They are, however, selected to have drop ears, “rounder” edges to their body, soft expressions and to move in a calming, slow manner around vulnerable beings.  It is not uncommon to see a LGD trot away from the stock a ways to assess and warn off a threat, head high, tail up and carrying themselves with extreme forward motion; only to return and reverse the process: slow in pace, lowering their tail and body profile as they approach the stock.  It takes a highly intelligent, thinking dog to constantly evaluate the environment/context and respond appropriately.

What follows is a series of photographs that illustrate the appropriate body language around stock.  I’ve included a picture of our 8 month old (at the time) Maremma/Great Pyr girl greeting my daughter, who came to visit in the barn in her wheelchair.  It’s important to note that since our LGD pup had not been taught not to jump up at her previous home, she was still struggling with it here these three months later.  She automatically adjusted her behavior to suit the situation with my daughter, however – a good sign of a properly maturing LGD.









Big Mama

March 14 15

March 14 20

March 29 18

March 29 20

snow trips1

snow trips3

DSC_0429 (2)

Leave a comment

Myths and Misinformation about LGDs, Part II

We’re working our way through updating the Myths and Misinformation about LGDs document I wrote in 2014.  You can find the first part here.

Myths and Misinformation about LGDs, cont’d.


6) Since Livestock Guardian Dogs are popular, you should be able to find a good pup anywhere.

Like any other purchase, buying a LGD is very much a ‘buyer beware’ process. Price is not always clear indicator of value or workability as some breeders like to pretend that their dogs are more valuable due to a special color, claims of increased aggression or because they choose to breed for an overly large dog. Others import dogs from questionable sources overseas and claim that the dogs are worth much more than local dogs.  A proven dog should command a higher price, depending on age and health, than a pup.  In general, if the asking price for the pups is very low, it’s a good indicator that not much work or care has gone into either the parents or the pups.  If the price is very high, it may be a reflection of rarity and/or the work that has gone into achieving the litter.  Do not be afraid to ask a lot of questions of the breeder.  They should have at least a few questions for you as well.

The most important and effective time to do your research is before you purchase a pup. Look for some health testing on the parents with verifiable results (OFA hip and elbow ratings for example) and insist on meeting them and observing them work.  Ensure that the parents are working, or that the breeder understands what to look for in a prospective working dog.   A responsible seller will offer a contract with provisions for health problems and a guarantee of working ability. The contract should be easily understood and ideally request that you take your new pup to a vet for an examination within a short time frame. Compensation for health problems or lack of working ability should also be clearly outlined.

Another less utilized option is to buy a pup through a rescue organization or from a shelter.  Some rescues refuse to home their dogs to any home that plans to keep the dog outside, and others do not want the complications of liability for homing the dogs in their care to working homes.  There are some rescues who actively test and home some of their dogs to working situations, though.  Don’t be afraid to ask rescue organizations if they are open to homing working dogs.  If the rescue isn’t, or chooses not to home a dog to a producer, do not take this decision personally.  There are likely other considerations that went into that decision making process.  Shelters or pounds typically do not mind allowing producers to purchase their dogs, but keep in mind that the dogs found there will most likely not have been tested with stock.  If they did come from a working environment, there is often no way to find out if the dog was successful or to determine a history of health.  These situations can be very rewarding when they are successful, but are highest on the list in terms of ‘buyer beware’.


7) LGDs cannot or should not be trained to listen to their owners.

A common misconception, this belief leads to dogs who are not able to be walked on leash, tied for any period of time or who do not sit, wait or let off inappropriate threat displays when required to. LGDs are different than a lot of other dogs in that they are meant to be independent thinkers who spend a great deal of their working time alone. As a result, they don’t often find relevance in traditional obedience training. It is, however, very possible to have a well mannered and well trained LGD as long as you are a fair and generous handler.

If a farmer chooses, they can enroll their young LGD pup in an obedience class.  It is important that the class focus on teaching behaviors and exposing dogs to different sights, sounds and experiences rather than on interactive puppy play time.  LGDs are large and often play roughly with other dogs, which can lead to problems in a play group.  If a class is not preferred, farmers should strongly consider taking their pups off of the farm while they are young for trips into the vet, to town or even to larger centers.  In this way, the pup will be exposed to different stimuli and be better able to discern what is a threat and what isn’t.  Strangers can interact with the pup when they are little, but as they mature, it is best to ask people to look and not touch.  Ensure that all vaccinations are up to date and that young pups have had at least one set of vaccines before taking them off the property.

Positive training methods work well with these dogs if demands are kept to a minimum.  Rewarding them with life rewards works very well. For example, asking for the dog to sit before crossing thresholds or to receive their bowl of food can be very effective. If corrections are made, they must be fair and understood by the dog to relate to the behavior. In other words, removing the dog to isolation, yelling at or scruffing (grabbing both sides of their neck and shaking) must never be done after time has elapsed from the behavior you intend to correct. Verbal and visual expressions of disapproval often go much further with these dogs than physical corrections, especially when a respectful relationship is maintained between the owners and the dogs.  Take some time to learn what your dog responds best to and train them fairly.  Remember that a dog cannot know what is expected of them until they are taught, and that teaching with more praise than correction is always more effective.  That said, do not be afraid to effectively correct serious behavior infractions such as stock chasing.  Fewer effective corrections are much better than many “nagging” ones.


8) If you spend too much time with your Livestock Guardian Dog, they will refuse to guard anymore.

Ideally all positive interactions and affection sharing on the farm or ranch should initially be done in the area where you intend for the dog to remain and guard in. If the operation requires moving the stock to different areas outside of a permanent pasture, then all initial affection and interaction should be done in the presence of the stock, but without allowing the dog to “mug” for affection.  For very young pup and for adolescents (aged 6 months to 2 years), this can be difficult for them to do until they have had some play or romping type exercise first.

All interactions with young pups or inexperienced dogs outside of the pasture or away from the stock on the farm should be kept business like and low key in order to not give the impression that more fun things happen there. If the producer travels away from the farm with the dog, affection can be shared without fear of compromising guardian ability.  LGDs are easily able to understand when they are away from their territory, especially when the owner commits to initially taking them on perimeter walks.

If the dogs are working more general farm duties, keeping the lines clear regarding acceptable and unacceptable behavior in and around the house will help the dog understand what is required. Typically, if the dog is meant to live outside full time, allowing them to sleep in the bed with the owner will be counterproductive. Many dogs with working ability will still prefer to be outside the majority of the time as they mature.
9) A Livestock Guardian Dog must be raised with livestock to be a successful working LGD.

There have been many cases of dogs who were raised in urban environments or otherwise away from stock who have done well transitioning to work as full time LGDs. Since instinct is largely innate, being raised with livestock will result in a dog who is solidly a successful working LGD, but it is not an absolute necessity. Rescues and rehomed dogs have become successful guardians despite never having spent time with stock previously.


10) A dog of any breed can be a successful Livestock Guardian Dog. Crossing a LGD with a dog of a non-LGD breed will result in a successful guardian.

This is probably one of the most dangerous assumptions that can be made. Most, if not all other breeds of dogs have a higher prey drive and less appropriate guardian instincts than the LGD breeds. Crossing non LGD breeds with LGDs does not mean that the resulting pups will have the required LGD instincts as breeding is always a roll of the dice regarding what traits will be prominent in the offspring. Since many traits do not fully show themselves until adolescence or adulthood, owners can be lulled into a false sense of safety with their dogs only to find out that they were very wrong. This gamble can be very costly and quite devastating.  Combining the large size, independence and increased aggression of the LGD with the heightened prey drive of the non-LGD dog can result in a stock killing machine who resists training and enjoys wandering.  The combination can be equally devastating in urban environments where the overreaction of many non-LGDs to fast moving objects pairs with the single mindedness of the LGD to create a very large dog who is out of control.

This is not to say that there aren’t individual dogs of a non-LGD heritage who do a good job as stock protectors, or more readily as a general farm guardian.  These individuals are the exception, rather than the rule, and can require a more experienced owner.
11) Only a Livestock Guardian Dog who lives with stock 24/7 is considered to be a working LGD.

The article “What Is The Difference Between A Livestock Guardian and a Family Companion?” (found here) outlines two appropriate common roles for LGDs as full time working dogs. It’s a very good read and also talks about some of the common issues that come along with trying to keep dog with working ability as suburban or urban pets.

A full-time livestock guardian is just that, living with the stock 24/7 year round. These dogs eat, sleep and do everything in the pastures, corrals, barns and ranges where the stock are. This type of job still requires training and supervision, handling and care on the part of the owner.  Some smaller operations who employ full-time livestock guardians choose to have the dogs exercise and otherwise “hang out” on the yard with them.  These dogs may also come up to the house occasionally or even routinely.  There are no hard and fast rules for this job description as operations are very individual; the exception being that young pups and inexperienced dogs need to learn first that their place is with the stock.

A general farm guardian, or yard and home guardian, patrols the yard and keeps predators off of the land and away from any free ranging house pets or stock that are often put up at night. In order for these dogs to do their job successfully, they often need to sleep outside at night (even on the porch) in order to alert to and chase off any potential intruders. They may be brought inside more often than a full-time livestock guardian for rest or to protect the members of the household.  This type of job description can involve going off property to accompany the owners and their families on day trips and therefore, socialization and basic obedience training are very important considerations.  Since the dogs doing this type of job are in closer contact with visitors to the farm, early socialization is also required even if no off property trips are planned.

Urban/Suburban pet life can be quite challenging for LGDs, especially those with strong working ability or who are from the harder/sharper breeds who typically have less tolerance for strangers and perceived threats. It is not typically recommended, especially for dogs with significant working ability.

Stay tuned for the final part of this document next.